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What is USB Kill Kit

USB Kill, a USB device is able to fry and damage your computer, mobile phone, router, etc. This device is quite dangerous and can kill electronics the moment it is inserted into an available port. By now people should know that they should not put unknown USB sticks into their devices because of potential virus and malware threats but this raises using unknown sticks to a whole new level.

usb kill kit

Kill kits are not really new to the market, they have existed before but lately, technology really progressed and the latest USB sticks are really good, their success rate is around 95% which is pretty high and should not be taken lightly.

The second thing that you really should not play with strange USB sticks is that they dropped in price really hard, although top Kill kits will still go as high as around 300 USD, there are really cheap ones lurking in Ali Express that are just 6 USD!!! that makes them affordable devices for the mass market.

The device is made to take energy and current from the port it is plugged in, multiply it and release its charge back into the device, successfully frying some components immediately. Some more professional Kill sticks can even fry devices even when the device itself is not powered and can be even started remotely.

The point of this article is to make you aware that you should not in any kind of circumstances use and plug-in USB sticks into your devices that you do not know where they come from, especially from the mail!!

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How to Resolve “We couldn’t update system reserved partition” Error in Windows 10 Installation

We couldn’t update system reserved partition” - What is it?

Customers will most likely encounter the “We couldn’t update system reserved partition” error when upgrading to Windows 10 from Windows 7 or Windows 8.1. This error may also come with error code 0xc1900104 or error code 0x800f0922.

Solution

Restoro box imageError Cause

“We couldn’t update system reserved partition” Windows 10 upgrade error is normally caused by too little space on the System Reserved Partition (SRP). The System Reserve Partition is an additional small partition created by Windows, which stores boot files. The SRP can be filled up with security apps and third-party anti-virus. Once this partition has insufficient space, the system will not be able to upgrade to Windows 10.

Further Information and Manual Repair

Caution: The following steps are complex and need to be done by experienced users especially using the command line. Once an error is made in entering commands, there’s a chance that your device can be put in a no-boot situation, or data stored on the device can possibly get lost.

To upgrade to Windows 10, your device needs to have at least 15MB free space on the System Reserved Partition. Follow the procedure below and then try upgrading again.

First, know if the System Reserved Partition is whether in GPT or MBR partition style:

  1. Open the Run window by pressing the Windows key + R. Type msc in the window then press Enter.
  2. Right-click on the Disk where SRP is located then select
  3. Click over the Volumes
  4. On the Partition Style line, you’ll see which partition style your device is using, either Master Boot Record (MBR) or GUID Partition Table (GPT)

Second, determine which method you will need:

Depending on what partition style your device has and whether you’re currently on Windows 7 or Windows 8/8.1, there are various methods you need to do.

Method 1: Windows 7 or 8/8.1 with GPT partition

  1. Click on the Start button and search for cmd. In the results, right-click on Command Prompt then choose Run as administrator. The command prompt window will appear.
  2. Type mountvol y: /s at the command prompt then press Enter. This command will add the Y: drive letter where you can access the System Partition.
  3. Type taskkill /im explorer.exe /f then hit Enter. Afterward, restart explorer in Admin mode by typing exe and hitting Enter.

NOTE: While in Admin mode, some apps like OneNote will not run.

  1. Open File Explorer then type Y:EFIMicrosoftBoot in the address bar. Hit Enter.
  2. Choose the language folders you want to permanently delete. Language folders are named with four letters split with a hyphen. For instance, you want to delete the German language: choose de-DE.
  3. Optional: You can also delete unused font files for more space. Type Y:EFIMicrosoftBootFonts in the address bar then press enter.
  4. Once you permanently deleted the unnecessary files, reboot the device to return to explorer.exe to normal mode and remove the Y: drive letter.

Method 2: Windows 7 with MBR partition

Doing this method will make a permanent, but small increase in the free space of the device’s SRP.

  1. Delete language folders

a. Open the Run window by pressing the Windows key + R. Type diskmgmt.msc then hit Enter. b. Select System Reserve partition then right-click on it.

c. Choose Change Drive Letter and Paths then select Add.

d. Type Y for the drive letter then click OK.

e. Click on the Start button and search for cmd. In the results, right-click on Command Prompt then choose Run as administrator. The command prompt window will appear.

f. Type Y: at the command prompt then press Enter.

g. Once you’ve switched to drive Y, type takeown /d y /r /f . then hit Enter.

NOTE: Ensure that the space and period after “f” is included in order for the command to work properly      

h. Type icacls Y:* /save %systemdrive%NTFSp.txt /c /t then hit Enter to back up the permission to the drive.

NOTE: Ensure that all files are marked as successful and that no files are marked as failed.

i. Type whoami then hit Enter. Record the username that appears. Afterwards, type icacls . /grant <username you got from whoami>:F /t then press Enter.

NOTE: Ensure that there’s no space between the username and “:F” or the command will not work.

j. In the File Explorer, open the SRP drive and select the Boot folder. Choose the             language folders you want to permanently delete. Language folders are named      with four letters split with a hyphen. For example: de-DE is the German language          while en-US is the U.S. English language.

2. Truncate the NTFS Log:

a. Open the Command Prompt then type chkdsk /L Y: to check the size of the NTFS Log. If the NTFS Log size is less than 5000KB, you need not truncate the file.

b. Type chkdsk /L:5000 /X /F then hit Enter to truncate the NTFS Log.

c. Return to Disk Management window. Select Action menu then select Check if the device’s SRP now has a larger amount of free space. Once there’s enough space, right click the System Reserve Partition then select Change Drive Letter and Paths. Choose Y: then select Remove.

3. If there’s still not enough available space after truncating the NTFS Log, resize the USN journal:

a. Open the command prompt then type fsutil usn queryjournal Y: to display the size in hex value. Convert the hex value to decimal then divide it by 1048576. The result you will get will be in MB. If the journal size is 30MB or more, proceed with truncating the file.

NOTE: To convert the Hex value to Decimal, open the Calculator app in Windows then choose View menu. Select Programmer then choose Hex. Type the Hex value then choose Dec.

b. Type fsutil usn deletejournal /D /N Y: then hit Enter to delete the journal. Type fsutil usn createjournal m=1500 a=1 Y: to recreate the journal having the new log size value.

  1. Restore permissions

a. Type icacls Y: /restore %systemdrive%NTFSp.txt /c /t in the Command Prompt. Check if the files were successfully processed before proceeding. If you see a message saying some files failed while processing, this is normal since some of the files have already been deleted before performing a backup. However, if there are no successful files indicated, the command was not properly executed.

b. Type icacls . /grant system:f /t then hit Enter to adjust the ACL back to System. Now, you can set the owner of the drive by typing icacls Y: /setowner “SYSTEM” /t /c then press Enter.

c. Check if the device’s SRP now has enough free space by going back to Disk Management and refreshing the data. If the SRP already has sufficient space, you can now remove the drive letter. Right-click on the System Reserved Partition then choose Change Drive Letter and Paths. Select the Y: drive then choose Confirm deleting the drive letter by clicking OK.

Method 3: Windows 8/8.1 with MBR partition

This method makes a larger, but temporary, increase in the SRP free space.

1. Be sure you have an external drive having at least 250 MB free space and formatted as NFTS.

2. Open Run by pressing the Windows key + R. Type mscthen to choose the Recovery Partition. Right-click on it then choose Change Drive Letter and Paths.

3. Select Add then type Y for the drive letter, click

4. Click on the Start screen then type cmd in the search bar. In the results, right-click on Command Prompt then choose Run as administrator. The command prompt window will appear.

5. Switch to another drive by typing Y: in the command prompt. Once you’re in the drive Y, type takeown /d y /r /f .

NOTE: Ensure that space and period after “f” are included in order for the command to work properly.

  1. Type whoami then hit Enter. Record the username that appears. Afterward, type icacls . /grant <username you got from whoami>:F /t then press Enter.
NOTE: Ensure that there’s no space between the username and “:F” or else the command will not work.
  1. Once the command is completed, type attrib -s -r –h Y:RecoveryWindowsREwinre.wim then hit Enter.
  2. Open File Explorer and check the drive letter of the external drive you’re using (In this case, let’s assume F: is the drive letter of the external drive so when you see F: for the rest of the steps, this means the drive letter of the external drive you’re using).
  3. Type mkdir F:RecoveryWindowsRE in the Command Prompt then hit Enter. Afterward, type xcopy Y:RecoveryWindowsREwinre.wim F:RecoveryWindowsREwinre.wim /h
  4. Type C:WindowsSystem32Reagentc /SetREImage /Path F:RecoveryWindowsRE /Target C:Windows to map the new path
  5. Verify if the copy was successfully done then type del Y:RecoveryWindowsREwinre.wim /F
  6. Return to Disk Management window. Click on the Action menu then hit Check if the device’s SRP now has a larger amount of available space. Once there’s enough space, you can proceed with the upgrade.
  7. Upon completion of the upgrade, move back the wim file to the Recovery Partition. At this point, you can re-map now the location by:
    1. Open the Command Prompt then type xcopy F:RecoveryWindowsREwinre.wim Y:RecoveryWindowsREwinre.wim /h and press Enter.
    2. Type C:WindowsSystem32Reagentc /SetREImage /Path Y:RecoveryWindowsRE /Target C:Windows to re-map to the original path.
  8. Return to the Disk Management window. Right-click on the Recovery Partition then choose Change Drive Letter and Paths. Select the Y: drive then choose Remove.

Method: Download a Powerful Automated Tool

Not inclined to go through a long and technical process (as highlighted above)? Download and install a powerful automated tool and get the job done in a jiffy.
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Tips and tricks for longer SSD life
Today most users have an SSD drive, times have changed and SSD has become your typical computer equipment. A lot of time has passed from the first SSD hard drives up to today and technology has evolved and improved but still, there are some cool tricks and tips to speed up and extend the lifespan of your SSD hard drive. That being said let us dive right into what I would like to call the essentials of having an SSD hard drive.
  1. Keep your SSD firmware up to date.

    This one really is a no-brainer, keeping your firmware updated at all times will ensure longer life and SSD stability. The trick here is that each SSD manufacturer has its own ways of updating firmware so this is not something universal, you will have to go to the official website of your SSD manufacturer and get firmware updates and instructions from them directly.
  2. Enable ACHI.

    Advanced controller host interface or short ACHI is a feature that will ensure that your Windows will support all of the features that come with running SSD on your computer. It controls the TRIM feature which is crucial in helping Windows itself in its garbage collection on your hard drive. In order to enable ACHI, you will have to do it from your BIOS and it would be very good if the feature is enabled before Windows itself is installed so it can take full advantage of it.
  3. Enable TRIM.

    TRIM feature is vital in extending your SSD lifespan and it should be enabled by default in Windows but you can never be too cautious and double-check and enable if needed. To make sure it is enabled, open your command prompt and type in: fsutil behavior set disabledeletenotify 0
  4. Make sure your system restore is enabled.

    In the first SSD days, system restore was really a feature that you wanted to be disabled in order to prevent and extend the life span of your SSD drive, but we came a long way from there and today there is no reason to keep this feature turned off since it can be helping many ways with both your system and SSD.
  5. Disable Indexing in Windows.

    A large portion of the speed of your SSD drive is used for indexing files in Windows. Of course, the indexing feature is great if you store everything on your SSD drive but if by any chance you have another drive for your backup, pictures, music, etc. it would be highly beneficial for you to turn it off on your SSD. To turn indexing off click on your start menu, click on the computer. Right-click on your SSD and then click on properties. De-select box that says: Allow files to have contents indexed in addition to file properties and click OK. Once you do this the operating system will apply this to all the files and folders on the drive. If you see a dialog telling you that it couldn’t remove a file from the index, click Ignore All.
  6. Keep Windows defrag ON.

    This also was the option in early SSD days which was better to be OFF, but as said before since technology has been making progress and Windows has been improved and made aware of SSD drives, defrag has evolved as well, and now it is more of optimization tool then defragmenter which was once.
  7. Disable Prefetch and Superfetch.

    Windows is placing information in both physical and virtual memory for applications that you are not currently using but they are used often in order to speed their response time. If you are running low on space or having struggles with virtual memory it would be best to turn them both off. Go to registry manager and find: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management\PrefetchParameters, there you have 2 values: EnablePrefetcher and EnableSuperfetch, set both values to 0.
  8. Disable Search and Superfetch services.

    Disabling Superfetch in the registry is not all work, Press WINDOWS + R to bring run dialog, type in it services.msc, Find both Search and Superfetch and disable them.
  9. Configure Write Caching.

    Write caching can be enabled and disabled in the device manager by expanding disk drives, right-clicking on SSD, then click properties, select the policies tab. In the tab, there is the option to Enable write caching on the device. Now trick in this is that you will need to try and benchmark your SSD with both options turned ON and OFF since different manufacturers have different performances with this option being ON or OFF.
  10. Disable CleanPageFileAtShutdown and LargeSystemCache.

    Page file and a large cache of page files are not something that we longer need, since SSD writes with great speed in its flash memory both of these options can be disabled and you will both speed up shut down the process of your system and save some SSD life since page files will not be written. Find both options in the registry under the key: Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management set both to 0
  11. Set high performance in Power options.

    This option in power management will prevent your SSD from constantly shutting down and bringing it up increasing speed without sacrificing its life span.
These are tips and tricks for having great and longer life as well as speed for your SSD drive. We hope that you have found them useful and that you will come again to check new articles published daily for easier IT life.
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How to Fix 0x8007043c Error Code

What is 0x8007043c Error Code?

Have you ever come across 0x8007043c error message pop up on your PC? If yes, then you should know that this error message is generated when any corresponding process or operation cannot be completed successfully by the application. This is a critical Windows OS Error message that should be fixed immediately.

Solution

Restoro box imageError Causes

The 0x8007043c error code is usually triggered by the following reasons:
  • Missing or corrupt registry files
  • Failure to update Windows Installer
  • Viruses and Spyware
Common signs of this error code are pop-up messages, program lock-ups, problems with opening documents, and screen freeze.

Further Information and Manual Repair

As soon as you experience this error on your PC, it is advisable to repair it immediately because this error poses high-security risks. Malwares and viruses are notorious for data theft. To fix the 0x8007043c error on your PC, you don’t need to take on the services of an IT professional. This error code is rated as easy to repair. By following the instruction and repair solutions given below, you can easily fix this Window error 0x8007043c in a couple of minutes by yourself. Here’s what you need to do:

Step 1: Scan for Viruses and Spyware

To stop hackers from sneaking into your PC and stealing your confidential data, you must first scan your computer for viruses and spyware on your PC. It is advisable to use a powerful antivirus to ensure your computer is totally virus and spyware clean.

Step 2: Download and Install a Registry Cleaner

After you scan for viruses, you should now download and install a registry cleaner. This is needed because an antivirus does not detect corrupt registry entries. To detect such entries, the registry cleaner tool is the best. After you download a registry cleaner on your system, click the scan button. You will have to wait for a few seconds for the scanning to finish. Once the scanning is complete, click on the ‘Repair’ button to fix the errors. After fixing all the errors, restart your computer. This is important because the registry changes will only come into effect after the system restarts. By following these 2 simple steps, you can easily resolve the 0x8007043c error on your system. However, to prevent this error from occurring again, it is recommended to run the antivirus every time you use your PC.
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What to do when you can't format SD card
SD memory cards have surfaced as standard cards for digital cameras and microSD as phone standard memory cards. Most people have and use at least one daily, so naturally copying files and even formatting SD cards is a natural thing to do, but what if you cannot copy files or format SD cards? SD cardsFear not because we had this issue and tried several things in order to overcome the problem and after some time here is a list of what can you do if you are facing this exact issue. The list is written from most simple solutions to more complex ones and it is advisable to follow it as presented. That being said, let's dive into solving the problem.

1. Remove Write Protection on SD card

First and in my experience the most usual thing preventing deleting, copying files, and formating SD card is due to write protection. Take an SD card out of the laptop, camera, or card reader and visually inspect it. On side of almost every SD card, there is a hardware lock switch and mark where it needs to be positioned in order to be locked. Even if the switch is positioned on unlocked state, switch it to locked and then back to unlocked. Sometimes this easy moving of switch can resolve some contact issues and the card will start working normally. Another type of lock that could be turned ON is a software one. If for any kind of reason data protection has been turned ON, you will need to turn it off in order to be able to format an SD card. In order to do this follow this guide:
  1. Press ⊞ WINDOWS + R to open the Run dialog
  2. In run dialog type in diskpart and press ENTER
  3. Once diskpart is opened in command prompt type in: list disk and press ENTER
  4. Locate your SD card and type in select disk x, where x is disk number followed by ENTER
  5. After the SD card is selected type in: attributes disk clear read-only and press ENTER
This process will clear the software lock on the SD card, after following this method try to format the card again, if the problem still exists go to the next solution.

2. Format SD card using Command prompt

Command prompt is a great tool and can perform some commands that are not been able to be completed using file explorer or another tool inside Windows.
  1. In the taskbar search box, search for cmd and select the Command prompt
  2. On the right part select run as administrator
  3. If needed click on YES on UAC prompt
  4. Inside command prompt type in diskpart and press ENTER
  5. type in list disk followed by ENTER
  6. Select your SD card by locating its number in the list and typing select disk X, where is X SD cards number in list and press ENTER
  7. Once SD card is selected type in format fs=ntfs quick and press ENTER
This should format SD card but if for reason even this step is provided as unproductive, go to the next solution.

3. Format your card with the Disk Management tool

  1. Go into the taskbar and search for Disk Management and open it
  2. Select SD card partition that you wish to format
  3. Right-click on the partition and select format
  4. After the format is done, enter the volume label, file system, and allocation unit size. Confirm with OK
  5. Press OK again to confirm the formatting process.
If you have not managed to format your SD card even with this method go to the next solution.

4. Repartition card with Disk part

If all previous solutions have failed there is a chance that the SD card has bad sectors on it. If this is the case that we will need to partition cards in order to isolate bad sectors and use healthy ones.
  1. Press ⊞ WINDOWS + R to open the Run dialog
  2. In run dialog type in diskpart and press ENTER
  3. Once diskpart is opened in command prompt type in: list disk and press ENTER
  4. Locate your SD card and type in select disk x, where x is disk number followed by ENTER
  5. Type in Clean and press ENTER
  6. Type in Create partition primary and press ENTER
  7. To select a new partition type select partition 1 followed by ENTER
  8. Make partition active by typing active and pressing ENTER
  9. Format the drive by typing format fs=ntfs label=SDCard quick followed with ENTER
  10. Assign a letter to drive by typing assign letter=h followed with ENTER
  11. Type exit to close Command prompt followed again by ENTER and open File Explorer to check if the drive is active

5. Try a dedicated SD card formating fool

If anything failed so far, one last thing you could do is to download and try a dedicated SD card formatting tool. One that I would recommend is SD Memory Card Formatter, which is free software make specifically for formatting SD memory cards.
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How to place different wallpapers on 2 screens
Two monitor systems are not such a rarity like they were just a couple of years ago. More and more people are finding out the benefits of having 2 screens instead of one no matter if you play games or do serious work. So how technology has moved forward and new norms so have Windows and we can now set different wallpapers to different screens very easy, a task which was very difficult in the past.
  1. Go to the Personalization option in the Control Panel.
  2. Right-click on your home screen and select the Personalize option from the menu.
  3. In the new window, you can browse for images you wish to set as wallpaper on both of your monitors. This way, the images would be preloaded in the “Choose your picture” option.
  4. Right-click on the image. Doing this will open a new menu that will allow you to set wallpapers for each screen. There is also another option called “Choose a fit” which gives you the option to select the fit of the wallpaper.
  5. Choose one wallpaper for “monitor 1” and a different wallpaper for “monitor 2.” You will now see your dual-screen setup customized with two different wallpapers.
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A Quick Guide to Repair User32.dll Error Code

User32.dll Error Code - What is it?

User32.dll is a Dynamic Link Library file. Windows stores instructions for graphical elements such as dialog boxes and Windows in this file. This file is a crucial file, necessary to run Windows operations. If this file is damaged, deleted, or removed from the system you may not be able to run the programs on your system that use and share the User32.dll file thereby causing you inconvenience. The User32.dll file error is displayed in the following format:

“This application has failed to start because USER32.dll was not found. Reinstalling the application may fix this problem.”

Or

“[Program] illegal system DLL relocation”

Program here refers to the name of a program that caused the User32.dll error message.

Solution

Restoro box imageError Causes

User32.dll errors are triggered by the following reasons:
  • Missing and damaged .dll files
  • Viral infection
  • Registry corruption
User32.dll error is also referred to as C0000135 blue screen of death error. When the User32.dll error occurs it not only locks you out of your desired program but also turns your computer screen blue. If the error is not repaired timely it may expose your PC to serious threats such as abrupt system shutdowns, system failure, and crash.

Further Information and Manual Repair

To resolve the User32.dll error on your PC, try the following solutions:

1. Reinstall Programs Causing User32.dll errors

Sometimes User32.dll error may occur due to missing DLL files.  This happens when you delete a program from your PC and accidentally the DLL file also gets deleted which is shared by other programs on your system. Therefore to resolve this first find out what programs on your system use User32.dll to load and run on your system. To do this use the Tasklist command-line tool. It displays the names of all the programs that currently use the User32.dll file. After this, reinstall the programs that use User32.dll files on your system. This will hopefully resolve the error.

2. Install and Run Restoro

If it doesn’t, then this probably means that the damage is deep-rooted. It is related to the damaged DLL files, registry corruption, or viral infection. To resolve all of these causes in one go, it is best to download Restoro instead of downloading 3 different software to resolve each cause for the error separately. This is basically an advanced, innovative, and multi-functional PC repair tool embedded with multiple powerful utilities including a registry cleaner, and a system optimizer. It is a one-stop solution for all your PC-related problems including the User32.dll error. The registry cleaner wipes the clutter and obsolete files damaging the hard disk and simultaneously repairs the DLL files and the registry. The antivirus feature removes all the viruses on your system while the system stability utility boosts the PC speed significantly. It is safe, user-friendly, and compatible with all Windows versions including Windows Vista, XP, Windows 7, 8, 8.1, and 10. Click here to download Total System Care to resolve the User32.dll error right away.
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What to do if Windows 10 Taskbar Volume Control is not working
The quickest way to control and manage the volume of your Windows 10 PC is using the Volume control icon in the system tray. However, you might encounter issues in using it especially if you recently updated your PC. After the update, if it no longer responds to mouse clicks, be it a right-click or left-click, read on as this post will show you what you can do to remedy that issue. If you think that you’re the only one who has experienced this problem, you are mistaken as several users also reported that the volume icon does highlight and shows the volume level if you hover the cursor over it but it does not really do anything at all. This is definitely the quickest way to change the audio output in Windows 10 especially when you have to change from speakers to your earphone and whatnot. If you are one of the users whose Windows 10 Taskbar Volume Control icon has stopped working and every time you click on the icon and nothing happens and you’re still not able to adjust the volume of your Windows 10 computer, read on as this post will show you what you can do to fix that problem. Although the audio is working just fine, you will still not be able to adjust the volume from its control icon. The problem is most likely related to the UI interaction. There are times when icons in the taskbar also experience the same issue where you can hover your mouse over them but nothing happens when you click on them. As mentioned, the issue with the volume icon does not seem to affect the actual audio of the computer. Double-check to confirm and if it turns out that the audio is indeed working fine, you can use the hardware of your keyboard to manage and control the volume, however, the software just won’t work. This issue is really inconvenient especially for users who connect their laptops to a bigger display. To fix this issue, here are some suggestions you need to check out.

Option 1 – Try to restart the Windows Explorer

This option may sound silly but it has actually worked in fixing the issue for some users. So if anything gets stuck on the taskbar or system tray, the best way to revive them is by restarting Windows Explorer.
  • Right-click on the taskbar and then select the Task Manager.
  • Next, look for Windows Explorer under the Processes tab.
  • Then right-click and select restart.
  • After that, wait for the restart process to be completed and for the user interface to refresh. Note that you will notice the Taskbar disappearing and reappearing again. It will reload the entire user interface and allows you to access the volume icon. It should work this time.

Option 2 – Restart the Audio services

Restarting the audio services in your computer can also help you fix the volume control issue and to do that, refer to these steps:
  • Tap the Win + R keys to open the Run dialog box.
  • Type in “services.msc” in the field and hit Enter to open Services.
  • From there, look for Windows Audio and then right-click on it and go to Properties.
  • After that, you have to make sure that the Startup Type is set to Automatic.
  • Then click on the Stop button. Once it has stopped, start it again.
  • Now restart your computer and see if you can now access the volume icon on the taskbar.

Option 3 – Try to update or roll back the Audio driver

If the glitch in your audio has something to do with software, chances are it might be related to the audio driver – it could be that the newest version of your Windows 10 does not work well with the old version of the driver. This is why you have to update your audio driver to the newest available version.
  • Tap the Win + R keys to open the Run dialog box and then type in devmgmt.msc and tap Enter or click OK to open the Device Manager.
  • Expand the section for the outdated device drivers.
  • And then select the outdated driver(s) and right-click on it/them.
  • From the drop-down menu, select the Update Driver option and follow the on-screen instructions to install the latest version of the driver.
  • Then also click on the option, “Search automatically for updated driver software.
  • Restart your PC after the installation.
Note: If updating the Audio driver didn’t work, you can go to the website of your PC manufacturer and look for the support section where you can download the drivers for your computer. You just need to take note of your PC’s correct model and model number so you can find the appropriate driver.

Option 4 – Try running the Playing Audio Troubleshooter

Since the Windows 10 operating system has the Playing Audio Troubleshooter, you can use this troubleshooter to try and fix the volume control issue on your PC. You can access this tool in the Control Panel or in the Taskbar Search and even on the Troubleshooters page of Windows 10. Run this troubleshooter and see if it can fix the issue or not.
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Setup has failed to determine install choices
Running the Windows Setup does not always go smoothly as you could encounter some errors along the way. One of these errors is the “Something happened, Setup has failed to determine supported install choices” error. The only given option in such cases is to click the Close button and exit the setup. This kind of error in Windows setup can occur when you try to downgrade to the previous version of Windows using the built-in mechanism. This error could be caused by a corrupted image or it is also possible that the set of files are incomplete. Aside from that, it could also be due to compatibility issues or that the module used to downgrade the Windows operating system is not configured properly. To fix this error, you have to run the Windows Setup program in compatibility mode so that you can downgrade Windows. You could also use the image for the lower version of Windows that’s available on the official site of Microsoft. But before you do any of these, make sure that you’re logged in as an administrator. To fix the “Something happened, Setup has failed to determine supported install choices” error, follow the given options below sequentially.

Option 1 – Try to run the Installer of the downgraded version in Compatibility Mode

This is the first thing you can try to resolve the issue instead of going right ahead on making a bootable device. So if you are downgrading Windows, you can try to run the installer in the compatibility mode for that specific Windows version.
  • Look for the setup file.
  • Once you find it, right-click on it and select Properties from the context menu.
  • After that, go to the Compatibility tab and mark the checkbox for “Run this program in compatibility mode for:” and from the drop-down list, select either Windows 7 or Windows 8.
  • You also have to check the “Run as administrator” option.
  • Now click the Apply button and then click OK to save the changes made and check if it has resolved the issue or not.

Option 2 – Try to troubleshoot compatibility

This option is almost the same as the first one except it is an alternative way of fixing the “Setup has failed to determine supported install choices” error in case the first one didn’t work. In this option, you will troubleshoot the compatibility issue.
  • Look for the setup file.
  • Then right-click on it and select the “Troubleshoot compatibility” from the context menu.
  • After that, click on the “Try recommended setting” option. Once the process is done, the error message should be gone.

Option 3 – Run the DISM tool

You can run the DISM tool as well to help fix the error code 0x80244022 during Windows Update. Using this built-in tool, you have various options such as the “/ScanHealth”, “/CheckHealth”, and “/RestoreHealth”.
  • Open the Command Prompt with admin privileges.
  • Then type in the following commands and make sure to hit Enter right after you type each one of them:
    • Dism /Online /Cleanup-Image /CheckHealth
    • Dism /Online /Cleanup-Image /ScanHealth
    • exe /Online /Cleanup-image /Restorehealth
  • Do not close the window if the process takes a while as it will probably take a few minutes to finish.

Option 4 – Try using the image from the official site of Microsoft

If none of the options given above worked, you can try to use the image from Microsoft’s official site. This would help, especially if the error is caused by a corrupted image or image folder with incomplete files.
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Fix Windows Update Error 0x80071a91
Windows Update Error 0x80071a91, what it is? As you know, Windows Updates are very essential to the operating system since they push with them the important security updates that are crucial to the system. And if a Windows Update is delayed, it can the system vulnerable to potential threats. Thus, this kind of issue must be resolved right away. One of the errors that you can encounter while updating your computer is the Windows Update Error 0x80071a91. The error code 0x80071a91 occurs when the “Transaction support within the specified file system resource manager is not started or was shut down due to an error”. This happens when a service called “File System Resource Manager” or FSRM does not function due to some reason. To fix the Windows Update Error 0x80071a91, here are some suggestions that could help.

Option 1 – Run the Windows Update Troubleshooter

Running the built-in Windows Update troubleshooter could also help you resolve the Windows Update Error 0x80071a91. To run it, go to Settings and then select Troubleshoot from the options. From there, click on Windows Update and then click the “Run the troubleshooter” button. After that, follow the next on-screen instructions and you should be good to go.

Option 2 – Disable the antivirus program temporarily

There are times when the antivirus program installed in your computer blocks file access and even disk access. Thus, disabling the antivirus program or any security software installed in your computer is always a good idea you can try when the Windows Update process does not go smoothly. So before you try updating your computer again, make sure to disable the antivirus or security program and once the Windows Update is done, don’t forget to enable the antivirus program back again.

Option 3 – Try resetting the File System Resource Manager

As pointed out earlier, the error 0x80071a91 pops up when the FSRM service suddenly stops working and so resetting this service via Command Prompt might resolve the problem. To do so, follow the steps below.
  • In the Windows Search box, type “command prompt” and hit Enter.
  • Then right-click on Command Prompt from the related search results and click the “Run as administrator” option.
  • After opening Command Prompt as admin, type the following command and hit Enter:
resource setautoreset true C:
  • After that, exit Command Prompt and restart your computer and then check if the problem’s fixed by running Windows Update again.

Option 4 – Flush the contents of the SoftwareDistribution folder

You have to stop a couple of services such as BITS, Cryptographic, MSI Installer, and Windows Update Services. And to do that, you need to flush the contents in the SoftwareDistribution folder. The Software Distribution folder in the Windows operating system is a folder that can be found in the Windows directory and is used to store files temporarily which might be required to install the Windows Update on your PC. Thus, it is required by the Windows Update and maintained by WUAgent. Aside from that, it also contains all the Windows Update History files and once you delete them, you will most likely lose the Update history. As a result, the next time you run the Windows Update, it may result in a longer detection time.
  • Open the WinX Menu.
  • From there, open Command Prompt as admin.
  • Then type in the following command – don’t forget to hit Enter right after typing each one of them.
net stop wuauserv net start cryptSvc net start bits net start msiserver
  • After entering these commands, it will stop the Windows Update Service, Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS), Cryptographic, and the MSI Installer
  • Next, go to the C:/Windows/SoftwareDistribution folder and get rid of all the folders and files thereby tapping the Ctrl + A keys to select them all and then click on Delete. Note that if the files are in use, you won’t be able to delete them.
  • Once all the contents in the Software Distribution folder are deleted, restart your PC and then go back to Command Prompt and input the following commands again.
net start wuauserv net start bits

Option 5 – Delete the Common Log File System transaction logs

You might also want to delete the Common Log File System or CLFS transaction logs to fix the Windows Update Error 0x80071a91.
  • Open an elevated Command Prompt.
  • Then type each of the commands listed below and press Enter after you type each one of them.
    • cd /d %SystemRoot%System32SMIStoreMachine
    • attrib -s -h *
    • del *.blf
    • del *.regtrans-ms
  • After you’ve executed the commands given above, restart your computer and try to update Windows 10 again.
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Windows 10 Update and Shutdown/Restart is not working
Update and Shutdown/Restart is not working. As you have probably noticed, every time a new update is released and is downloaded on your Windows 10 computer, the operating system replaces the Restart and Shut down button with “Update and Restart” as well as “Update and Shut down”. This is most likely done so that you won’t miss the update. However, some users noticed that there are times when these buttons still continue to display the same message even if they’ve already performed the required operations such as shutting down or restarting their PCs. Cases like this happen when an update wasn’t installed properly or has failed which is why your computer keeps on prompting you to Update and Shutdown every time. To fix this dilemma, follow the options laid out below.

Option 1 – Try restarting the File Explorer

Restarting the File Explorer can definitely help you fix lots of issues especially when there is some issue with the user interface including this one.
  • On the right side of the Taskbar, right-click on any open spot.
  • Then click on Task Manager.
  • Next, scroll down until you see Windows Explorer.
  • After that, right-click on it and select Restart.
  • If you are able to kill its process, you have to tap the Win + R keys to open the Run dialog box and type “explorer.exe” in the field, and hit Enter to launch the Windows Explorer.

Option 2 – Try running the Windows Update Troubleshooter

As you know, Windows 10 has various auto-repair built-in tools to help users fix small issues which used to get fixed manually. And in this case, you will need the Windows Update Troubleshooter to fix the issue.
  • Go to Settings and click on Update and Security.
  • From there, click Troubleshoot and click on Windows Update and then click the “Run the troubleshooter” option.
  • After that, it will try to detect and automatically fix common issues in the Windows Updates which can be resolved by Windows itself. Note that the process may take several minutes before it completes so you need to wait until it’s done. Once it’s done, in case you have some pending update that wasn’t realized by the system early on, it will apply the fix right away and restart the Windows Update service.

Option 3 – Try setting the Power button to Shut down

In case the first two options didn’t work out, you can try changing what the power button does. To do that, refer to these steps:
  • Go to Control Panel > Power Options.
  • From there, select the “Choose what the power buttons do” option from the left side.
  • Then set the Power button setting the “When I press the power button” option to “Shut down”. After that, it will shut your computer down without installing the updates but obviously, this is only a temporary fix.

Option 4 – Turn off your PC instantly without updating it

  • Tap the Win + R keys to open the Run dialog box.
  • Type in “shutdown -s -f -t 0” in the field and hit Enter if you really want to turn off your computer without any delay.
  • You could also tap the Ctrl + Alt + Del keys and select Shut down from the bottom right menu.
Just like the third option, this is also only a temporary fix.

Option 5 – Try running the Windows Module Installer

The Windows Module Installer is a built-in service in Windows 10 that allows you to fix the stuck Windows Updates in your computer. To use it, follow these steps:
  • In the Cortana search box, type in “cmd” and from the search results that appear, right-click on Command Prompt and select the “Run as administrator” option from the context menu.
  • Once you’ve opened Command Prompt as admin, type the SC config trustedinstaller start=auto command and tap Enter.
  • After the command is executed, you will see the “[SC] ChangeServiceConfig SUCCESS” message displayed on the Command Prompt console.
  • Now exit Command Prompt and then check if the buttons are now back to normal.

Option 6 – Put your PC in a Clean Boot State

  • Log onto your PC as an administrator.
  • Type in MSConfig in the Start Search to open the System Configuration utility.
  • From there, go to the General tab and click “Selective startup”.
  • Clear the “Load Startup items” checkbox and make sure that the “Load System Services” and “Use Original boot configuration” options are checked.
  • Next, click the Services tab and select the “Hide All Microsoft Services” check box.
  • Click Disable all.
  • Click on Apply/OK and restart your PC. (This will put your PC into a Clean Boot State. And configure Windows to use the usual startup, just simply undo the changes.)
After putting your PC in a Clean Boot State, try creating a system restore point and see if the problem still occurs. Clean Boot troubleshooting is designed to help you isolate the problem. For you to execute a clean boot troubleshooting, you must do a couple of actions (the steps are given above) and then restart your PC after every action. You might have to disable one third-party app after the other to really isolate the issue. And once you’ve narrowed down the problem, you can either disable the third-party app that’s causing the problem or remove it. Note that you must switch your PC back into the Normal Startup mode after you’re done troubleshooting the problem. Here’s how you can do it:
  • From the “Start” menu, go to System Configuration.
  • After that, switch to the General tab and click the option for “Normal Startup”.
  • Next, go to the Services tab and clear the checkbox for “Hide all Microsoft services”.
  • Then find and click “Enable all” and if prompted, you have to confirm.
  • Afterward, go to the Task Manager and enable all the Startup programs and confirm the action.
  • Restart your PC when prompted.
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